Finland is Europe’s most heavily-forested country. Forests cover 23 million hectares or 74.2% of the land area.
There are about twenty indigenous tree species growing in Finland, the most common ones being pine (Pinus silvestris), spruce (Picea abies) and birch (Betula pendula and B. pubescens). Usually two or three tree species dominate a forest. Naturally pure pine stands are found in rocky terrain, on top of arid eskers and on pine swamps. Natural spruce stands are found on richer soil. Birch is commonly found as an admixture, but it can occasionally form pure birch stands
About half of the forest land area consists of mixed stands. Rarer species are found mostly as solitary trees. The south-western corner and the south coast of Finland are touched by a narrow zone growing oak, maple, ash and elm.